High fractional exhaled nitric oxide levels may predict short-term worsening of respiratory oscillometry in asthma.
Allergy. 2020 Jul 04;:
Authors: Endo Y, Shirai T, Hirai K, Akamatsu T, Kato E, Furui H, Hiramatsu T
High fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) levels, reflecting uncontrolled airway inflammation, are regarded as a risk factor for an upcoming asthma exacerbation. A previous study found that persistently high FeNO (> 40 ppb) was associated with a rapid decline in FEV1, even in controlled asthma patients, in a 3-year prospective study. However, little is known about the effect of high FeNO levels on short-term course of lung function. Oscillometry, also known as the forced oscillation technique, is a non-invasive method with which to measure respiratory mechanics and is useful for the evaluation or management of asthma. The aim of this study was to assess whether high FeNO levels (> 35 ppb) would predict the short-term worsening of lung function, especially oscillometric parameters.PMID: 32623752 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Generation of functional lungs with pluripotent stem cells.
Allergy. 2020 Jul 04;:
Authors: Boccabella C
Millions of people of all ages suffer from chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs), including asthma, respiratory allergies and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. To date, although significant advances have been made in terms of treatment, end-stage CRDs still remains one of the most frequent causes of death worldwide with a death rate that has been increasing over the past few years. Lung transplantation is the only therapeutic option when other treatments fail. However, it is often unavailable because of the scarcity of donor organs and donor-recipient mismatch. The field of bioengineering is making substantial progress toward organ regeneration via using human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs). Preclinical research on lung regeneration has faced several difficulties such as modelling the three-dimensional structural and functional complexities of the lung and maintaining cellular integrity and homeostasis.PMID: 32623729 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Related ArticlesClinical correlates of rhinovirus infection in preschool asthma.
Allergy. 2020 Jul 03;:
Authors: Jartti T, Liimatainen U, Xepapadaki P, Vahlberg T, Bachert C, Finotto S, Kowalski ML, Sobanska A, Lukkarinen H, Pasioti M, Vuorinen T, Zhang N, Zimmermann T, Papadopoulos NG
BACKGROUND: Investigation of preschool asthma is important since not all children outgrow their illness during this age. Data are scarce on the role of rhinovirus (RV) infections in this patient group.
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the role of RV infections in preschool asthma: (1) susceptibility factors, (2) clinical course, and (3) medium-term outcome.
METHODS: 130 asthmatic children aged 4 to 6 years from the multinational PreDicta cohort were prospectively followed for a 12-month period. Allergy tests and a standard health questionnaire were carried out at study entry. Respiratory virus presence in nasopharyngeal washes was studied at illness visits and at 3 scheduled visits.
RESULTS: At study entry, mean age of the children was 5.3 years. Of 571 visits, 54% were positive for any virus and 39% for RV. Patient characteristics were only assessed with RV infection due to low number of other viruses. The use of supplementary vitamin D was inversely associated with RV infection (P < .05). RV infection was associated with more severe course of acute illness in terms of more severe nighttime coughing, more sleep disturbances and more days with runny nose (all P < .05). RV infection was also associated with more severe disease course during the 12-month follow-up in terms of more nights with awakenings and more days of exercise-related symptoms (both P < .05).
CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D supplementation may have an anti-rhinovirus effect. Both short- and medium-term outcomes suggest RV infection to be an important clinical marker of instable preschool asthma.PMID: 32621330 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Related ArticlesLaser-facilitated epicutaneous immunotherapy with hypoallergenic beta-glucan neoglycoconjugates suppresses lung inflammation and avoids local side effects in a mouse model of allergic asthma.
Allergy. 2020 Jul 03;:
Authors: Korotchenko E, Schießl V, Scheiblhofer S, Schubert M, Dall E, Joubert IA, Strandt H, Neuper T, Sarajlic M, Bauer R, Geppert M, Joedicke D, Wildner S, Schaller S, Winkler S, Gadermaier G, Horejs-Hoeck J, Weiss R
BACKGROUND: Allergen-specific immunotherapy via the skin targets an area rich in antigen presenting cells, but can be associated with local and systemic side effect. Allergen-polysaccharide neoglycogonjugates increase immunization efficacy by targeting and activating dendritic cells via C-type lectin receptors and reduce side effects.
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the immunogenicity, allergenicity and therapeutic efficacy of laminarin-ovalbumin neoglycoconjugates (LamOVA).
METHODS: The biological activity of LamOVA was characterized in vitro using bone marrow derived dendritic cells. Immunogenicity and therapeutic efficacy was analyzed in BALB/c mice. Epicutaneous immunotherapy (EPIT) was performed using fractional infrared laser ablation to generate micropores in the skin and the effects of LamOVA on blocking IgG, IgE, cellular composition of BAL, lung, and spleen, lung function, and T cell polarization was assessed.
RESULTS: Conjugation of laminarin to ovalbumin reduced its IgE binding capacity 5-fold and increased its immunogenicity 3-fold in terms of IgG generation. EPIT with LamOVA induced significantly higher IgG levels than OVA, matching the levels induced by s.c. injection of OVA/alum (SCIT). EPIT was equally effective as SCIT in terms of blocking IgG induction and suppression of lung inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness, but SCIT was associated with higher levels of therapy induced IgE and TH2 cytokines. EPIT with LamOVA induced significantly lower local skin reactions during therapy compared to unconjugated OVA.
CONCLUSION: Conjugation of ovalbumin to laminarin increased its immunogenicity while at the same time reducing local side effects. LamOVA EPIT via laser generated micropores is safe and equally effective to SCIT with alum, without the need for adjuvant.PMID: 32621318 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]